Can l5-s1 Cause Constipation?

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Key Takeaways:

  • A herniated disc at L5-S1 may contribute to constipation by disrupting nerve signals to the digestive system.
  • However, research suggests L5-S1 herniation may not be a direct cause of constipation.
  • Other factors like tumors, slow food transit, and cauda equina syndrome can also lead to constipation.
  • L5-S1 herniation has been associated with bowel dysfunction, though constipation specifics remain unclear.
  • Managing constipation involves treating the underlying cause, lifestyle changes, and medications if needed.

What is a herniated disc at L5-S1?

A herniated disc occurs when the soft inner material of an intervertebral disc – the gelatinous nucleus pulposus – pushes through a tear in the tougher exterior and places pressure on the nerves. Herniated discs are most common in the lumbar spine, especially at the L5-S1 level. This disc lies between the fifth lumbar vertebrae and top of the sacrum bone.

Due to its position at the very base of the spine, an L5-S1 herniated disc can irritate the sciatic nerve roots as they exit the spinal canal. This can cause sciatica symptoms of pain, numbness or weakness down the leg and into the foot.

How might an L5-S1 herniated disc potentially contribute to constipation?

A herniated disc at L5-S1 could theoretically disrupt nerve signals between the spinal cord and digestive system, leading to impaired motility and constipation.

The parasympathetic nerves that stimulate peristalsis and secretion in the digestive tract originate from the sacral region of the spinal cord. Irritation of these nerve roots by a herniated L5-S1 disc could hamper normal bowel function.

Additionally, chronic pain from a herniated disc may promote reflex muscle spasms that hinder the smooth propagation of food through the intestines. Pain can also affect digestion through the gut-brain axis.

However, research has not conclusively established L5-S1 herniation as a direct cause of constipation. Let’s analyze the evidence further.

Does research clearly link L5-S1 herniation with constipation?

Surprisingly, studies present mixed findings regarding the association between L5-S1 herniation and constipation:

  • A 2012 study found patients with radicular low back pain had equivalent odds of constipation as those with non-radicular low back pain, suggesting radiculopathy is not an independent risk factor for constipation.
  • However, a 1990 study noted L5/S1 disc protrusions were associated with bowel dysfunction in most patients. The abnormalities resolved after successful disc surgery.
  • A 2015 review also stated lumbar disc herniation can contribute to bowel and bladder dysfunction, though did not provide specifics on constipation.
  • Cauda equina syndrome (CES), a severe nerve compression syndrome sometimes caused by large L5-S1 herniations, has been clearly linked with bowel and bladder dysfunction. But CES is uncommon.

Overall, while L5-S1 herniation may play a role, there is insufficient evidence that it directly causes routine constipation. Other factors likely contribute.

What else can cause constipation?

Some common causes of constipation include:

  • Inadequate fiber intake
  • Dehydration
  • Lack of exercise
  • Various medications
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Pelvic floor dysfunction
  • Neurological disorders
  • Metabolic disturbances like diabetes
  • Obstructing colon lesions or tumors

In fact, a prospective study by the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons found 6.3% of constipation cases were caused by neoplasms like colon cancer.

Structural issues in the colon itself can also result in constipation. Slow transit constipation may arise from problems with the colonic musculature or nerves.

Ultimately, the causes of constipation are multifactorial. An L5-S1 herniated disc could contribute in some patients but may not directly instigate constipation alone.

When should someone seek medical care for constipation?

Mild acute constipation can initially be managed at home with lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter laxatives. However, promptly talk to a doctor if you experience:

  • Persistent or worsening constipation over 2 weeks
  • Blood in stool
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Persistent abdominal pain or cramps
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Constipation along with spinal cord compression signs like leg weakness

Such symptoms may indicate an underlying condition requiring medical treatment. Elders should seek care earlier as constipation can be particularly dangerous for them.

How is constipation normally treated?

Constipation treatment focuses on addressing the underlying cause, if identifiable. Laxatives provide short-term relief for acute symptoms. Other standard treatments include:

  • Increasing fiber intake: 20-35 grams per day is recommended, from food or supplements.
  • Staying hydrated: Drink plenty of water and limit dehydrating beverages.
  • Exercise: Physical activity stimulates the bowels.
  • Establishing bathroom routines: Like after waking up or meals.
  • Stress management: Anxiety and mental stress can disrupt digestion.
  • Medications: Osmotic laxatives, stimulant laxatives, stool softeners, lubiprostone.
  • Enemas: For immediate relief if severely impacted.

If constipation persists despite such measures, patients may need testing like colonoscopy or referral to a gastroenterologist. Underlying causes like strictures, motility disorders or neuropathy may require targeted treatment.


While a herniated L5-S1 disc could play a role in some cases, current research has not conclusively established it as a direct cause of constipation. Constipation more often arises from lifestyle factors, colonic issues, medications, metabolic disorders and neurological conditions.

However, severe L5-S1 impingement can contribute to cauda equina syndrome which involves bowel and bladder dysfunction.

Overall, anyone developing new onset constipation should see a doctor to identify the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes, addressing pain and inflammation from disc herniation, and sometimes medications can provide relief. But severe or unexplained constipation warrants comprehensive medical investigation.

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