Should You Have a Newline at the End of a File?

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Key Takeaways:

  • Having a newline character at the end of a file provides consistency and avoids potential issues.
  • Omitting a final newline can cause problems with compilers, diffs, and processing the last line.
  • Standards like POSIX define a line as ending in a newline character.
  • Consistently ending files with a newline makes it easier to append and concat files.
  • Some text editors automatically add a newline, while others do not.


When working with text files in programming and scripting, a common question arises – should the file end with a newline character? While it may seem minor, this formatting choice can have implications for consistency, portability, and tooling. This comprehensive guide will analyze the arguments for and against ending files with a newline, including perspectives from standards, tooling, and practice.

By evaluating key evidence and expert opinions, this article provides definitive recommendations to inform your approach. Whether you are working with code, configuration files, logs, or other text data, understanding newline requirements can prevent subtle bugs and problems. With deeper insight, you can optimize text file handling and get more value from key tools like version control and streaming utilities.

Discover specific technical motivations, evaluate when newlines are necessary or preferred, and ensure your text files follow conventions for maximum compatibility. Fundamentally, gain evidence-based guidance to help answer the question – should you have a newline at the end of a file?

The Case for Adding a Newline

Several compelling technical reasons explain why a newline character at the end of a file is recommended. Let’s explore some of the primary arguments in favor:

Does Consistency Matter?

One of the main reasons for ending text files with a newline character is consistency. If the last line in a file doesn’t end with a newline then addition of the next line affects two lines instead of one. This also pollutes diff on multiple files, so the reader may wonder what has changed in a line whereas no significant change has occurred.

Consistency makes it easier to write tools and programs to handle files, as they can rely on this format being followed. Appending or concatenating files is also simplified if each file ends predictably with a newline. Overall, keeping this convention avoids tricky “edge cases” in various situations.

Do Compilers Care?

Some compilers, especially C or C++ ones, give warnings about “No new line at end of file”. This indicates the compiler expects and prefers newlines at the end. Omitting it can generate unnecessary warnings even if there are no functional problems. Following the expected convention avoids this nuisance.

For example, GCC will display the warning “no newline at end of file” if a newline is missing. Consistently adding a newline character prevents this warning message.

Can Processing the Last Line Cause Issues?

Additionally, some programs have problems processing the last line of a file if it doesn’t end with a newline character. For instance, the UNIX sed utility that modifies text in a stream relies on newlines to delimit lines. If the last line is missing a newline, sed will not process that final line as expected.

Many tools are designed to handle one line at a time using the newline character as the delimiter. Failing to end the file properly can disrupt this process and cause subtle issues. Adding a newline avoids any edge case problems.

What Do Standards Say?

Standards that define text files also lend support to ending with a newline character. Specifically, POSIX defines a line as a possibly empty sequence of non-newline characters, terminating in a newline, also called EOL (End-Of-Line), ASCII code 0x0A.

Meanwhile, a text file is defined as consisting of lines. This implies that a file should contain some number of lines, including the terminating newline for the last one. Standards suggest that is the expected conventions for text files.

What is Best Practice?

In his seminal text editor guide, Doug McIlroy wrote:

“To maintain the property that the last line ends with a newline, it is also required that a file end in a newline.”

This captures the conventional wisdom that ending with a newline is the standard practice that should be followed for consistent file handling. Leaving it off creates edge cases that tools and programs may not handle properly.

Overall, following a clear convention avoids potential inconsistencies, errors, annoyances, and unintended behavior. The community-wide best practice is to terminate text files with a newline character.

The Case Against Newlines

Are there any reasons to omit a newline character at the end of a file? A few potential arguments have been raised:

Does it Occupy Unnecessary Space?

Some suggest that ending with a newline wastes the unused space of that extra character. For modern storage this is negligible, but in extremely constrained environments it may matter.

However, optimization for such niche scenarios can lead to inconsistencies and problems in general usage. The miniscule storage savings are rarely worth the risks of handling files without newlines.

Do Formats Like CSV Not Require It?

For file formats like CSV that separate data into lines, newlines might not be needed after the final line. Since each line is already distinct, no further delimiter is necessary. However, even formats like CSV often still abide by the convention of closing with a newline for consistency.

The lack of a newline character could also cause problems when attempting to process CSV files with standard text utilities that depend on newlines. Following conventions avoids such edge cases.

Can Newlines Be Stripped Before Processing?

Another approach is to strip any newlines from the end of files as a preprocessing step before parsing or manipulating the data. This would allow arbitrarily formatted files as input.

However, this shifts complexity into the processing logic. The simpler approach is to handle files following standard conventions, including terminating newlines, instead of introducing extra logic to cleanup non-standard formats.

Do Some Editors Not Add It?

Some text editors and tools do not automatically add a newline to the end of files during editing. However, this does not mean newlines should be omitted when writing files programmatically or generating output. Leaving off newlines just because an editor doesn’t enforce them is still an anti-pattern.

Overall, there are not many compelling benefits to omitting a final newline character in most cases. The consistency and compatibility advantages outweigh other concerns in practice.

When Are Newlines Optional or Unnecessary?

While in most cases ending a file with a newline is ideal, there are some scenarios where it may be optional or unnecessary:

For Binary Files or Memory Buffers

Newlines are only a convention for text files. Binary files and data blobs or memory buffers do not require newlines, as the concept of lines and lines endings does not apply.

When Concatenating Text

When programmatically combining multiple text files by concatenating them, it is unnecessary to have a newline at the end of each file before concatenating. The newlines between the file contents are sufficient.

For Read-Only Single Line Files

If a text file will only ever contain a single line and be read-only, a newline is not functionally required. But even here, following conventions is wise in case assumptions change later.

Within File Formats with Delimiters

Some file formats that delimit data like CSV may not require a newline after the final element or record. But even these formats often follow conventions for consistency.

If Performance Requires Optimization

In extremely high performance scenarios where each byte matters, omitting unused newlines could provide micro-optimizations. But only in rare cases would this outweight the consistency benefit.

When Editors Strip Existing Newlines

Some editors strip trailing newlines when writing files. So if adhering to the restrictions or behaviors of a certain editor, newlines may not be possible. But when possible, newlines should be used regardless of editor behavior.

Overall, there are reasonable edge cases where omitting a final newline does not cause issues. But in most scenarios, the benefits of following conventions outweigh special cases.

Best Practices for Newlines at End of Files

When writing programs or tools that output text files, what are some best practices to follow regarding newlines?

  • Be consistent: Always end files with either a newline or not. Avoid mixing conventions.
  • Add newlines by default: Unless optimizing for a special case, get in the habit of appending newlines.
  • Use utilities to enforce it: Tools like nl can ensure files end with newlines if needed.
  • Document expectations: If newlines are required for a file format, note that in documentation.
  • Handle files as is: When processing files, handle both cases of newlines or not to be robust.
  • Maintain portability: Use cross-platform newline formats like \n instead of OS-specific ones.
  • Check for newlines: When concatenating or appending, check if newlines are needed first.
  • Require newlines for user-facing files: Any files intended to be opened directly should close with a newline.

By following conventions and documentation, as well as handling both cases, robustness and consistency is achieved. Newlines may be optional in some cases but having them by default avoids many potential pitfalls.


Should you end a file with a newline character? In most cases, the answer is yes – following this standard convention provides consistency, avoids edge cases, and matches expectations. Standards like POSIX reinforce newlines at the end of text files as good practice. Only in certain specialized circumstances is omitting the newline justifiable or preferred.

By understanding motivations like compatibility, tooling considerations, and principles like least surprise, the advantages of closing files with newlines are clear. Consistently following this ubiquitous convention optimizes text file handling across systems, languages, and use cases. Finally, when writing programs that output text files, get in the habit of appending a newline to avoid surprises down the road.

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