Where Are Polestar Cars Made?

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Key Takeaways:

  • Polestar vehicles are currently produced in China at Volvo plants in Luqiao and Chengdu.
  • The upcoming Polestar 3 SUV will be the first Polestar model made in the U.S. at Volvo’s South Carolina plant.
  • Polestar’s founders and designers work out of Sweden, but manufacturing is handled in China for now.
  • Polestar plans to begin manufacturing in South Carolina in 2024 to supply U.S. and European markets.
  • The Polestar 1 was hand-built at a dedicated production center in Chengdu with a limited run of 500 per year.

Polestar has quickly grown from a small Swedish racing team to a globally recognized electric vehicle brand with manufacturing facilities spanning the globe. But where exactly are Polestar cars made?

This comprehensive article will analyze Polestar’s manufacturing operations to uncover key details about their production centers. You’ll learn where each vehicle model is assembled, from the sporty Polestar 1 coupe to the upcoming Polestar 3 luxury SUV. We’ll also explore Polestar’s international supply chain, ownership history, and future manufacturing plans.

Gaining insight into how this fascinating new automaker designs, engineers, and manufactures its electric cars will help explain Polestar’s unique identity. Understanding their globalized production strategy will also shed light on how Polestar balances its Swedish heritage with its Chinese parent company.

By the end, you’ll have an in-depth perspective on where Polestar innovates, designs, and builds each of its groundbreaking new EVs. Let’s get started!

Where Does Polestar Currently Manufacture Its Vehicles?

Polestar 2 Production in Luqiao, China

The high-volume Polestar 2 electric fastback is manufactured at an plant in Luqiao, China operated by Volvo Cars. This facility also produces the electric Volvo XC40 Recharge SUV.

As Polestar’s first mass-produced EV, the Polestar 2 is built alongside its Volvo platform sibling to take advantage of shared manufacturing infrastructure. Luqiao gives Polestar an existing skilled workforce and production capacity.

Hand-Built Polestar 1 Hybrid Coupes in Chengdu, China

The low-volume Polestar 1 plug-in hybrid coupe was hand-assembled at a dedicated Polestar Production Centre in Chengdu, China. This facility was custom-built for the Polestar 1 with a limited yearly capacity of 500 units.

As Polestar’s halo model, the 1 was built to a higher standard than the assembly-line 2. Each 1 was constructed by a team of technicians over nearly two weeks to ensure quality.

Upcoming Polestar 3 SUV Manufacturing in South Carolina, U.S.

Polestar has confirmed that their upcoming Polestar 3 electric SUV will be manufactured in South Carolina, marking the brand’s first US production facility.

The 3 will be assembled at Volvo’s recently opened factory in Ridgeville starting in 2024. Polestar chose this location for its skilled workforce and quality standards.

Why Are Polestars Currently Made in China?

Despite Polestar’s Swedish heritage, manufacturing is currently centered in China for a few key reasons:

  • Chinese Ownership: Polestar is owned by Chinese automaker Geely, which acquired Volvo and Polestar in the early 2010s. This gives Polestar access to established Volvo factories in China.
  • Industry Expertise: China is the world’s largest EV market and has developed specialized manufacturing expertise and supply chains for electric vehicle components.
  • Cost Efficiencies: Chinese facilities offer Polestar advantages in labor costs, shipping, and proximity to a booming EV customer base.
  • Rapid Scaling: Polestar needed to quickly scale up production volumes, something Chinese mega-factories excel at accomplishing.

How Will US Production Benefit Polestar?

Polestar’s plan to begin manufacturing vehicles in South Carolina in 2024 will provide several advantages:

  • Proximity to US Market: Polestar wants to grow sales in the US, its second-largest market after China. Local production avoids import tariffs and shipping costs.
  • Highly Skilled Workforce: Volvo’s award-winning South Carolina plant provides Polestar with an expert team trained to rigid Scandinavian standards.
  • Brand Perception: “Made in America” label boosts Polestar’s brand image with US consumers seeking domestic manufacturing.
  • Supply Chain Security: Producing vehicles closer to American customers insulates Polestar from global supply chain disruptions.
  • Sustainable Production: The solar-powered South Carolina facility supports Polestar’s commitments to reducing environmental impact.

What Countries Are Key to Polestar’s Success?

While Polestar vehicles are currently made only in China, the brand relies on global contributions:

  • Sweden: Polestar’s product planning, design, R&D, and senior leadership is centered in Sweden, reflecting the brand’s roots.
  • China: Chinese factories have provided Polestar with world-class manufacturing scale and efficiencies as the brand grows rapidly.
  • United States: Polestar is investing heavily in the US market and will soon manufacture vehicles domestically. Brand headquarters relocated to NYC.
  • Europe: Europe is Polestar’s technology partner for developing carbon-neutral manufacturing and will be a focus market for Polestar’s expanding lineup.
  • Global Supply Chains: Polestar sources components like batteries from established international suppliers across Europe and Asia.

How Does Manufacturing Vary Between Polestar Models?

Polestar uses distinct manufacturing strategies tailored to the unique nature of each vehicle model:

Why is the Polestar 1 Made in Limited Numbers?

  • Hand-Built Production: Each 1 is painstakingly constructed by hand over 2 weeks, rather than mass-produced. This ensures exceptional quality.
  • Boutique Model: Low-volume production reinforces the 1 coupe’s exclusive, high-end positioning as Polestar’s brand flagship.
  • Complex Hybrid Technology: The 1’s intricate hybrid powertrain technology justifies dedicated production with specially trained technicians.
  • High Costs: Hand-crafting the carbon fiber 1 body is expensive and time-consuming, inherently limiting production volume.

How Does Polestar 2 Manufacturing Differ?

  • High-Volume Assembly Line: The 2 is mass-produced on an automated assembly line for efficiency, with a target of tens of thousands per year.
  • Shared Platform and Factory: The 2 shares a platform and factory with Volvo models, amortizing costs over more vehicles.
  • Simpler EV powertrain: The 2’s purely electric architecture is easier to manufacture versus the complex 1 hybrid.
  • Flexible Volumes: The assembly line process allows Polestar to readily increase or decrease 2 production as needed based on demand.

How Will the Upcoming Polestar 3 Be Manufactured Differently?

Polestar is taking a hybrid approach to producing the 3, combining hand-crafted Swedish design with high-efficiency American manufacturing:

  • Bespoke Production Line: The 3 will get its own assembly line specialized for this model and flexible North American/European exports.
  • Hands-on Quality Checks: Polestar experts will audit fit and finish to maintain Swedish luxury standards.
  • Optimized Logistics: Manufacturing the 3 in South Carolina improves delivery logistics for Polestar’s key North American and European markets.
  • Market-Specific Customization: Proximity to American consumers allows late-stage customizations matching local preferences.
  • Expansion Capability: The 3 line is designed for efficient scaling to meet demand across multiple continents as the model gains popularity.


Polestar has crafted an intriguing global manufacturing strategy that balances the brand’s Swedish luxury roots with the scale efficiencies of Chinese production. While the company currently manufactures its electric vehicles in China, upcoming production of the Polestar 3 in South Carolina signals an evolution to multi-continent manufacturing targeted at regional markets. With Polestar’s Swedish design leadership, Chinese manufacturing expertise, and new American production, the automaker aims to deliver a unique blend of exclusivity, innovation, and sustainability to customers worldwide

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