How Does Baling Hay Work?

This post may contain affiliate links. If you click one, I may earn a commission at no cost to you. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

Baling hay is an essential process for farmers and ranchers to store and transport hay efficiently. But how exactly does baling hay work? Here are the key steps:

Key Takeaways on How Baling Hay Works:

  • Baling hay involves cutting, drying, raking, baling, wrapping, and storing the hay.
  • Machinery like mowers, hay rakes, and balers are used to facilitate the baling process.
  • Common types of balers include round balers that produce cylindrical bales and square balers that produce rectangular bales.
  • Bales are wrapped with twine or netting to hold the hay together for storage and handling.
  • Proper baling and storage keeps hay dry and protected for use as animal feed.

What is the purpose of baling hay?

Farmers bale hay to condense and package it for more efficient handling, transportation, and storage. What are the benefits of baling hay over just storing loose hay?

  • Facilitates storage: Bales can be neatly stacked and arranged taking up less space. Loose hay scatters and needs much more storage room.
  • Enables transportation: Compact bales are easy to load, transport, and deliver using trucks, tractors, and other equipment. Loose hay is messy and challenging to transport.
  • Reduces spoilage: Dense bales prevent moisture penetration and allow air circulation to keep hay dry. Loose hay gets damp and moldy much faster.
  • Provides convenience: Uniform bales can be counted, inventoried, and rationed for consistent feeding. Loose hay is difficult to quantify and allocate.
  • Saves labor: Handling and distributing baled hay is quicker and easier compared to loose hay.

In short, baling condenses hay for space-saving storage and enables efficient handling and feeding operations. It gives farmers an effective solution for managing large hay harvests.

How is hay prepared for baling?

How Does Baling Hay Work?

Before hay can be baled, it goes through important steps to ensure it’s dry, evenly distributed, and ready to be compressed into tight bales:

  • Mowing: A tractor mower cuts the hay at optimal ripeness using sickle blades or rotary disks. Mowing promotes drying by increasing exposed surface area.
  • Drying: After cutting, the hay is left drying directly in the field for 2-5 days depending on moisture levels. Turning and tedding may be done to enhance drying.
  • Raking: A tractor rake sweeps cut hay into fluffy windrows, allowing remaining moisture to evaporate. This organizing also aids baling.
  • Baling: The appropriately dried hay is picked up directly by the baler and compressed into bales.

Proper drying, raking, and staging of cut hay is critical for efficient baling and quality bales that store well. Rushing the process can lead to excess moisture and spoilage issues.

What types of hay balers are used?

There are two main types of balers used to compress hay:

Round Balers

  • Produce large cylindrical or rolled bales weighing up to 2000 lbs.
  • Pick up hay directly from the ground using rotating tines or a conveyor belt.
  • Use a continuous series of belts that roll the hay into a growing bale inside the bale chamber.
  • Can be fully automatic or require manual tying.
  • Ideal for large-scale hay operations and livestock feeding.

Square Balers

  • Produce rectangular cube-shaped bales weighing up to 100 lbs.
  • Use a pickup head and feeder to consolidate hay into uniform charges or “cookies”.
  • A plunger compresses each charge into high-density bales in the bale chamber.
  • Twine or wire is automatically wrapped around finished bales and knotted.
  • Well-suited for sale, transport, and storage of premium hay.

In addition to these common types, some specialty balers can produce large square or mid-sized bales. The optimal baler depends on the scale of production, available storage, and end-use for the hay.

How does the baling process work?

The actual baling process consists of pickup, compression, wrapping, and ejection of bales:

  • Pickup: Cut hay is lifted from the ground or windrow by tines, belts, or a sweep that feeds it into the baler.
  • Compression: Once inside the bale chamber, hay is compressed by belts, rollers, or a plunger into tight, dense bales.
  • Wrapping: As bales reach full size, twine or net wrap is automatically wrapped around them to contain the hay.
  • Ejection: Completed bales are ejected out the back of the baler as the next bale is formed inside.
  • Collection: Bales dropping out of the baler are manually or automatically stacked, or loaded for transport to storage.

During baling, monitors track bale size, density, and position to ensure ideal formation. Brakes and tensioners also come into play. Proper setup and operation is key for uniform, durable bales.

What are the best practices for baling hay?

Follow these tips for safe, efficient baling that produces quality hay bales:

  • Inspect fields and test moisture before baling – aim for less than 18% moisture content.
  • Perform any turning or tedding needed to aid drying prior to raking.
  • Rake when hay is dry to the touch but still pliable – avoid brittle hay prone to shatter.
  • Operate balers at rated speeds – typically around 5 mph for optimal output.
  • Adjust bale density to balance durability and nutrition retention.
  • Apply sufficient overlapping wraps of twine/netting – 4-6 for small bales, 8-12 for large.
  • Regularly inspect and service balers as per the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  • Monitor bales coming out of the chamber and remove any misshapen ones.
  • Handle bales gently to prevent damage – use grapplers instead of spearing.

Following best practices for your particular equipment and hay conditions will ensure strong, well-formed bales for the next phase of the harvest process.

How should hay bales be handled for storage?

To preserve bale quality for the long term, proper handling and storage measures are recommended:

  • Let bales fully cure for 5-7 days before stacking for storage. Avoid storing at over 20% moisture.
  • Arrange bales on a pallet, gravel bed, or firm bare ground with adequate drainage to avoid absorbing ground moisture.
  • Stack bales tightly to prevent air gaps but allow air circulation through sides. Rectangular bales should be crossed and alternating.
  • Use a breathable water-resistant cover over bale stacks to protect from rain, snow, and sun while still allowing ventilation.
  • Store under cover or indoors if possible. Ensure storage locations stay dry with adequate drainage and air flow.
  • Avoid puncturing bales when handling. Use equipment like squeezes or grapples rather than spears.
  • Inspect bales periodically for moisture, mold, and rodents. Discard any damaged bales and adjust storage conditions if needed.

Proper storage from baling to feeding out is vital for maximum nutrition retention and preventing waste.

What equipment maintenance is required for balers?

To keep balers running at peak performance through the intensive baling season, diligent maintenance is a must:

  • Daily inspections: Check overall condition, belts, chains, tires, and monitors. Remove debris, fix loose parts, and lubricate as needed.
  • Frequent cleaning: Use compressed air to thoroughly clean out debris from knotters, rollers, chambers, and belts daily.
  • Ongoing lubrication: Lubricate bearings, chains, sprockets, drives, pulleys, and knotter mechanisms according to manual specs.
  • Post-season servicing: Perform comprehensive servicing including repairs, replacements, fluid changes, etc. Address any issues discovered during use.
  • Off-season storage: Store balers undercover and perform any additional maintenance recommended for storage conditions per the manual.
  • Manufacturer schedules: Follow all maintenance schedules and procedures provided for your specific make and model of baler.

Proper maintenance extends the lifetime of baling equipment, prevents breakdowns during harvest, and ensures clean fields with no debris left behind. Don’t neglect this essential baling task.

What safety tips should be followed when baling hay?

Baling hay involves working with heavy machinery and compression forces, so caution is required:

  • Wear fitted clothes to avoid entanglement – avoid loose sleeves, dangly jewelry, etc.
  • Keep body parts and tools away from pickup and compression areas when operating.
  • Turn off the baler and disable power before clearing jams or servicing.
  • Have another person present to assist in case of emergencies or injuries.
  • Check brake function regularly to enable safe stopping on slopes.
  • Attach a slow moving vehicle sign when transporting balers on roads.
  • Provide fire extinguishers both on balers and in fields in case ignitions occur.
  • Avoid operating balers near power lines or low tree limbs.
  • Refuel only after balers have cooled down to prevent igniting vapors.

Staying vigilant, following training, and prioritizing safety is key to preventing accidents when baling. Don’t take risks around these powerful machines.

What are some common problems encountered in baling hay?

Baling hay can sometimes hit snags or issues along the way:

  • Misshaped bales: Causes include not adequately drying/raking hay, dull cutting blades, overflowing feed rates, improperly adjusted tension, and damaged bale chambers.
  • Flakey or unraveling bales: Often due to baling when hay is too dry and brittle or not applying sufficient wrapping.
  • Low bale weight: Results from defective knotters, loose belts, low plunger pressure, or lack of hay density adjustment.
  • Hay clogging: Wet hay or excessive feed rates lead to clogging in pickup and feeder areas.
  • Twine breaks: Frayed, weak, or cheap twine prone to breaking, leaving unfinished bales.
  • Knotter failures: Improper knotter timing, worn parts, or twine issues can cause missed knots.
  • Bent spears: Spearing instead of grabbing bales can easily damage spears.

Routine inspection, adjustment, and maintenance goes a long way in minimizing problems during baling.

What are the costs associated with baling hay?

Baling hay requires significant upfront and ongoing costs:

  • Equipment costs: New balers range from $15,000 for small square balers up to $150,000 for large round balers. Used balers can lower costs.
  • Maintenance expenses: Regular service, parts replacement, repairs, and storage upkeep for balers can cost around $2,000 annually.
  • Fuel costs: Gas and diesel to operate tractors and balers amount to around $5-$20 per bale depending on bale size.
  • Twine/net wrap: Materials cost around $25 per bale for net wrap and $0.25 for sisal twine depending on bale size.
  • Labor: Baling typically pays around $15/hr requiring 1-3 workers depending on scale and automation.
  • Rental fees: Renting instead of buying balers costs around $200-$500 daily depending on type and demand.
  • Transportation: Moving and delivering bales adds further fuel, labor, and rental costs.

Though not cheap, the money invested in proper equipment, supplies, and labor enables efficient baling to conserve harvested hay.

What are some innovations in hay baling methods?

Some interesting innovations that aim to improve different aspects of the traditional small square baling process include:

  • Automated bale collection – conveyor systems eliminate manual stacking of ejected bales.
  • Moisture monitoring – sensors detect moisture levels during pickup to aid optimal timing.
  • Hybrid power – diesel-electric drives lower emissions and fuel costs.
  • Autonomous operation – GPS guidance and sensors allow driverless baling.
  • Alternative wrapping – plastic wraps reduce twine waste but cost more.
  • High-density baling – ultra-compact bales maximize transport efficiency.
  • Rapid baling – specialized designs triple hay throughput speed.
  • Biodegradable baling film – innovative films keep bales contained but naturally decompose to avoid plastic waste in fields.

Though new technologies exist, many hay farmers still use conventional equipment due to lower costs. Gradual upgrades to improve productivity and sustainability make most sense for small family farms.

What are some key takeaways on baling hay?

Here are the main points to remember:

  • Proper mowing, drying, raking, and staging of hay is crucial before baling to ensure suitable moisture content.
  • Most hay is baled using either round balers that produce large cylindrical bales or square balers that produce rectangular cube-shaped bales.
  • The baling process involves pickup, internal compression, wrapping, and ejection of formed bales.
  • Diligent maintenance and regular cleaning keeps balers running smoothly through intensive haying seasons.
  • For storage, bales must be handled carefully to avoid damage and kept in a dry, ventilated area.
  • Following best practices for baling and storage maximizes the quantity and quality of hay available for livestock feed.


Baling hay into transportable, storable bales is an integral practice on farms and ranches reliant on hay feeding. Though baling equipment represents a major investment, the returns in terms of efficient handling, preservation, and flexibility of use more than justify the costs. With responsible treatment of equipment and a focus on producing dense, durable bales, hay producers can effectively harness this technology for sustainable livestock operations. Whether done on a small-scale with square bales or large-scale using massive round bales, understanding the baling process is key to management success

About The Author

Scroll to Top