What Does Hydration Percentage Mean?

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Key Takeaways:

  • Hydration percentage refers to the ratio of water or liquid to flour in a bread dough recipe.
  • It’s calculated by dividing the weight of water/liquid by the weight of flour and multiplying by 100 to get a percentage.
  • Higher hydration doughs have a moister, more open crumb while lower hydration makes a denser texture.
  • Hydration level affects the texture, pliability, and handling of bread dough.
  • Baker’s percentages express hydration with flour as 100% and water as a percentage of the flour weight.


Baking bread at home has become an increasingly popular hobby. Getting the perfect rise and crumb texture requires careful control of ingredients and technique. One of the most important factors in breadmaking is hydration – the amount of water or liquid added to the dough. But what exactly does “hydration percentage” mean? How is it calculated and why does it matter? This article will comprehensively evaluate hydration percentage, explaining what it means, how to calculate it, and its significance in breadmaking.

Understanding hydration levels allows bakers to adjust recipes and achieve the desired dough consistency and finished bread texture. Proper hydration technique is key to executing recipes successfully. With the right insight into hydration percentages, home bakers can unlock their potential to create professional quality artisan breads. Equipped with this vital knowledge, you will be able to master the foundations of hydration and take your baking abilities to the next level.

How Is Hydration Percentage Calculated?

Hydration refers to the ratio of water or liquid to the flour in a bread dough recipe. It is expressed as a percentage. The percentage is calculated by dividing the weight of water or liquid by the weight of flour and multiplying by 100.

For example, if a dough recipe calls for:

  • 1000g flour
  • 650g water

The hydration percentage would be:

(Weight of water / Weight of flour) x 100 (650g / 1000g) x 100 = 65%

So this dough has a hydration percentage of 65%.

Baker’s percentages are typically used to calculate and express hydration. With baker’s percentages, the flour weight is always represented as 100%. The water or liquid weight is shown as a percentage of the flour weight.

So in the example above:

  • Flour = 100% = 1000g
  • Water = 65% = 650g (65% of 1000g)

Using baker’s percentages allows recipes to be easily scaled up or down while maintaining consistent hydration levels. It simplifies doing the math for larger or smaller batch sizes.

What Are Common Hydration Percentages?

Hydration percentages can range widely depending on the desired dough characteristics and type of bread being made.

Some typical hydration levels are:

  • 66-68% – Dense bread dough like bagels or sandwich loaves
  • 70-72% – Soft and fine-crumbed dough like pan bread
  • 75-80% – Medium hydration for most artisan breads
  • 80-85% – High hydration for open crumb breads like ciabatta
  • 95-100% – Ultra high hydration for no-knead crusty artisan breads

Lower hydrations around 66-68% produce very firm, dense doughs that are easy to shape. Higher hydrations around 80% and above result in very soft and sticky doughs.

The optimum percentage depends on factors like the flour type and desired finished texture. For most standard bread recipes, a hydration of 75-80% provides a good balance of workability and lightness.

How Does Hydration Level Affect Dough Properties?

The hydration level significantly impacts the characteristics of the dough, which in turn affects the shaping process and the properties of the baked bread.


Higher hydration leads to increased moisture in the dough, giving it a soft and sticky texture. Lower hydration creates a firm, dry, and stiff dough that is easier to handle.

Gluten Formation

More water promotes increased development of gluten strands. Well-hydrated doughs will rise higher as the gluten provides structure and elasticity.


Hydration level impacts fermentation. Dry dough ferments more slowly while wet dough ferments more quickly. Proper fermentation is key for flavor and rise.


Lower hydration dough results in denser bread crumb structure, while higher hydration creates an airy, open crumb with irregular holes.


Wetter doughs are stickier and trickier to shape. Drier doughs are much easier to form into smooth rounds or loaves.

How Does Hydration Affect Baking and the Final Bread?

Hydration is a key factor determining the characteristics of the baked bread:


Higher hydration promotes caramelization during baking for a crisper, browner crust. Moist interior and dry crust provide texture contrast.

Crumb Texture

More moisture creates an irregular, holey crumb while less water makes a tighter, even crumb. High hydration breads have an open and webbed interior crumb structure.

Shelf Life

Lower moisture breads generally retain freshness longer. Soft and wet crumb dries out faster. Proper storage is important for high hydration breads.


Hydration level impacts fermentation and caramelization which determine flavor. Wet doughs ferment faster, producing more complex flavors.


Visual aspects like oven spring, crust color, and open holes are affected by hydration. A balance supports good rise and an aesthetic loaf.

What Factors Should Be Considered for Hydration Level?

Several factors go into choosing the right hydration level for a bread recipe:

Desired Crumb Texture

The biggest determinant is the preferred crumb character – dense or airy. A tight, even crumb needs lower hydration. An open, irregular crumb requires high hydration.

Flour Absorption

Flour composition affects hydration needs. Whole grain and high protein flours require more moisture than refined white flours.


Lower hydrations are better for doughs with high yield that will be made into many smaller units like rolls or bagels.

Shaping Method

Very wet doughs are difficult to shape by hand but work well for free form or pan shapes. Adjust hydration based on planned loaf style.


Ingredients like eggs, fat, or dairy lower hydration needs since they add moisture themselves. Take enrichments into account.

Fermentation Time

Long, slow fermentation allows for slightly lower hydration. Quick ferments need enough moisture for dough to rise properly.

Desired Shelf Life

If a longer lasting bread is ideal, err towards lower moisture content. Higher moisture reduces shelf life.

What Are Some Tips for Managing High Hydration Doughs?

Working with wet, sticky doughs at higher hydrations can be challenging. Here are some tips:

  • Use a dough scraper to handle the dough instead of dusting with flour. Scrapers minimize sticking.
  • Let the dough rise in the bowl covered after mixing – handling is easier once risen.
  • Fold the dough gently during fermentation to strengthen it – avoids degassing when shaping later.
  • Dust with rice flour instead of regular flour – it doesn’t get absorbed so doesn’t alter hydration.
  • Use a well-floured couche, parchment, or banneton for rising high hydration doughs.
  • Keep dough well-floured when doing final shaping before baking. Seam side down prevents sticking to the pan or baking surface.
  • For pan baking, line pans with parchment to prevent sticking and use a quick flip/drop into the pan.
  • Keep dough covered as much as possible to prevent drying out the exterior.
  • Mist loaves with water before loading into the oven for extra moisture.

With practice and preparation, high hydration dough can be a pleasure to work with!

Frequently Asked Questions About Hydration Percentage in Breadmaking

What is the standard hydration percentage for bread?

The standard hydration percentage for most bread recipes falls between 75-80%. This provides a good balance of workability and lightness for artisan style loaves.

Why is higher hydration better?

Higher hydration percentages like 80% and above create an open, irregular crumb with a light and airy texture. The additional moisture allows for better oven spring and rise.

How wet should high hydration dough be?

Doughs with a high hydration of 80% or more should have a shaggy, sticky, and soft texture that is tricky to handle. Using a dough scraper and plenty of flour makes shaping easier.

Does higher hydration mean more air pockets?

Yes, higher hydration allows for increased fermentation activity leading to greater carbon dioxide production. This creates an airy crumb structure with a web of large and irregular air pockets throughout the bread.

Should I adjust hydration for whole wheat flour?

Yes, whole wheat flour absorbs more moisture than white flour. Increase hydration by about 5% when using 100% whole wheat flour in a recipe.

Can over-hydrated dough be fixed?

Adding a small amount of flour and kneading it in can reduce excessive moisture in over-hydrated dough. Reduce hydration up to 5% for best results.

Why is my high hydration dough dense?

Underproofing is a common cause of dense loaves with high hydration dough. Ensure adequate fermentation time to allow the gluten strands to fully develop.


Hydration level has a clear and dramatic impact on bread dough, shaping, and the final baked loaf. Understanding hydration percentages provides bakers with essential control over the breadmaking process. Mastering the use of baker’s percentages and adjusting hydration appropriately enables reliably achieving the desired crumb texture. With the knowledge of how to effectively handle wet, high hydration dough, beautiful artisan style loaves can be crafted right at home. Equipped with these insights into proper hydration techniques, anyone can elevate their home baking abilities and enjoy the pleasures of homemade bread.

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